Q: During a free throw, when can substitutions be made?  Is it immediately when the call is made because its a dead ball?  Can a substitution be made after the first free throw?  Or during free throws, can a substitution only be made after a final successful free throw?

A: Substitutions by either team may be made prior to the 1st free throw, before the Lead official administers the free throw, and after the final free throw provided it was successful.  The official ruling states:

19.2.2. A substitution opportunity begins when:

  • For both teams, the ball becomes dead, the game clock is stopped and the official has ended his communication with the scorer's table.
  • For both teams, the ball becomes dead following a successful last or only free throw.
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