Q: A2 is cutting across the key when defense B4 impedes his path, as A2 adjusts his direction to dodge the defence, he swings his arms sideways and contacts the defender with his elbow. Should this play be called as a personal foul or disqualifying foul?

A. There is no hard and fast rule and official judgement definitely comes into play.  As you describe below, if he swings his arm and it's straight and contact happens to come with the elbow, and the swing is not excessive, this would just be a common foul.  If the arm is bent and the player leads with
their elbow and makes contact that is, in the opinion of the official, excessive, a flagrant foul should be called.

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